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Readuction of manganese oxide in stainless steel slag

  • Metal release from stainless steel in biological

    oxide.1315 Ni is typically not present in the outermost sur- face oxide, but is enriched in its metallic form beneath the surface oxide.14,1619 Oxides of Mn and Mo can be present in the surface oxide,1416,2022 depending on the stainless steel grade and prevailing environmental conditions.

  • ** BHP TEMCO , Bell Bay, Australia Abstract

    Features of Mn-ore and FeMn-slag reduction Reduction of manganese ore has been compared to that of ferromanganese slag, table 1. Silica has been found to have a retardin~ effect on manganese reduction in the case of siliceous Mn-ore. > Reduction of FeMn slag is much slower than that manganese ore.

  • Ferromanganese - an overview ScienceDirect Topics

    As the raw materials move down the furnace, the higher oxides of manganese are reduced to MnO by the gas leaving the furnace. The reduction of manganese (II) oxide occurs by the contact of carbon with the molten oxide in the slag phase. The overall reaction is: (1.10.70) MnO +

  • Procedure for reduction of high-chromium slag in electric

    For this purpose, the document EP 0829545 B1 offers a way to get foamy slag on the molten stainless steel in the electric furnace, and the slag powder is introduced by a pressure medium, for example nitrogen, consisting of a metal oxide (zinc oxide or lead oxide) and carbon. Contained in the oxide powder is recovered by reacting with carbon.

  • Reduction behavior of chromium oxide in molten slag using

    To reduce chromium in stainless steel slag and simultaneously recover chromium as a ferroalloy for the steel making industry, the direct smelting reduction of chromium oxide in molten slag was investigated by small furnace experiments. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were also carried out to suggest the limit of reduction of CrO(x) in

  • Borates in metallurgical applications

    ferroboron (10-25% B), manganese-boron (15-20% B) and nickel-boron (15-18% B) are made through the reduction of boric oxide or boric acid in the presence of the alloying metal. The advantages of boron in relation to properties of steel are formability, hardenability, creep ductility in strip and engineering

  • Carbothermic Reduction of Ferruginous Manganese Ore for Mn

    In the present paper, beneficiation of Fe and Mn elements from a ferruginous manganese ore via carbothermic reduction followed by magnetic separation process was investigated in detail. The effects of the experimental parameters were systematically discussed. Iron-rich products with an Fe grade of 62.3% and 88.2% of Fe recovery, and manganese-rich product with a Mn grade of 63.7% of and

  • Effects of Moisture on Surface Chemistry of Steel Slags

    A steel slag expansion test was performed according to ASTM D-4792-88. In this procedure steel slag specimens were prepared using the standard Proctor method and stainless steel molds with perforated base plates to allow for moisture movement during the light-colored phase is an iron oxide-rich phase of mixed oxides of magnesium, manganese

  • Non-Metallic Inclusions in Steels - Silicate Inclusions

    Fractured large furnace slag particle in cold-worked austenitic stainless steel powder Fractures in MnS inclusion in the rolled steel Galaxite and chromium galaxite in 1018S steel Galaxite in glassy manganese oxide-alumina-silica Glassy calcium silicate in austenitic stainless steel Globular aluminosilicate inclusion in steel

  • Reaction of AlKilled Manganese Steel with Ladle Slag

    Some laboratory experiments are carried out to investigate the reaction between manganese steel and ladle slag. It is found that as expected when the slag basicity [R = w(CaO)/w(SiO 2)] is sufficiently low, for example, R < 4, the dissolved Al in conventional Alkilled steel could reduce the SiO 2 component of the slag.In the case of manganese steel grades [w(Mn): 620%, w(Al): 0.025%

  • Breakdown and Evolution of the Protective Oxide Scales of

    Aug 16, 2011· The failure of the protective oxide scales of AISI 304 and AISI 316 stainless steels has been studied and compared at 1,000°C in synthetic air. First, the isothermal thermogravimetric curves of both stainless steels were plotted to determine the time needed to reach the breakdown point. The different resistance of each stainless steel was interpreted on the basis of the nature of the

  • Oxide-Inclusion Evolution in the Steelmaking Process of

    who found that a low basicity slag resulted in lower [Al]s in stainless steel, which helped to avoid the formation of Al2O3-rich inclusions and improve the deformability of inclusions. However, the oxide-inclusion evolution of 304L stainless steel produced for

  • Reduction of chromium oxides in stainless steel dust

    The recovery of metal oxides from stainless steel dust using C (graphite), SiFe, and Al as reductants was investigated under various conditions. The apparent distribution ratio of Cr ( L'{ Cr / m/s }) in the recovered metal and residual slag phases was defined as the major performance metric. The results show that the recovery ratio of metals increases as the ratio of CaO:SiO<SUB>2</SUB> by


    mixed oxide phase which is very probably of exogenous origin) 45); Right: Crystals of alumina on the surface of a globular slag inclusion 53)) (a) (b) Fig.11 Inclusion clusters in LCAK steel (a63), b43)) iii). Irregular shape, if not spherical from slag entrainment or deoxidation product silica. The spherical

  • Remelting Steel for the Highest Demands: Electro Slag

    Oxides and sulphur are bound in the slag. After passing through the slag the steel solidifies again to form a remelted block. The remelting process takes place in a water-cooled copper mold, so that the block solidifies quickly and very uniformly. The slag that gave this process its name mostly consists of a mixture of fluorspar, chalk, and clay.

  • Cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment of global manganese

    Manganese is a metal used extensively in everyday life, particularly in structural steel. Despite the importance of manganese as an essential alloying element in steel and stainless steel, the environmental profile of manganese alloys lacked globally representative, primary industry data. The International Manganese Institute (IMnI) and Hatch completed the first global life cycle assessment

  • Conversion of Mill Scale Waste into Valuable Products via

    Mill scale is one of waste materials which is produced as a result of hot rolling of steel in all steel companies. On the other hand, mill scale is considered a rich iron source with minimum impurities. This work aims at conversion of mill scale by adjusting smelting processes to produce different valuable products. The smelting processes were carried out using carbothermic reduction in a

  • The Comprehensive Utilization of Steel Slag in

    The steel slag, ladle slag, and stainless steel slag (chemical characterization in Tables 1 and 2) applied as soil acidity correctives, at the dose necessary to raise the initial soil saturation to 70%, did not change the soil metals content evaluated at 12 and 23 months after the application of residues, and the Pb content decreased with the

  • 12.4 Ferroalloy Production - US EPA

    submerged arc process is a reduction smelting operation. The reactants consist of metallic ores (ferrous oxides, silicon oxides, manganese oxides, chrome oxides, etc.) and a carbon-source reducing agent, usually in the form of coke, charcoal, high- and low-volatility coal, or wood chips. Limestone may also be added as a flux material.

  • Slags in ferroalloys productionreview of present

    range depending on the manganese ore and its gangue minerals. Characteristic for FeMn process is that the slag is rich in manganese oxide up to above 30%. A common feature is that the ore oxides, CrO x and MnO x in slag are not only divalent oxides but also containing some higher valent of Cr3+ and Mn3+, respectively. In FeMn production

  • Reduction of steelmaking slags for recovery of valuable

    The slag products include a metallurgical powder for desulfurization of steel, hydraulic binder and slag stones for construction applications. The metals obtained are rich in Fe, Mn, V and Cr depending on the treated slag and residues. The environmental compatibility and mechanical properties of the slags have been improved after slag reduction.

  • Chemistry Notes Topic 10: Metals SOS! IGCSE Guide

    Aug 07, 2020· The amount of carbon removed from iron depends on the amount of oxygen used. By controlling the amount of carbon removed and the addition of other metals like chromium, nickel, or manganese, the particular type of steel alloy is produced. Ex. Tungsten steel, Manganese steel, Stainless steel


    Aug 15, 1990· There is substantial evidence that reoxidation is a major cause of oxide macro-inclusions in stainless steel castings. The results of an examination This oxygen may come from the air, reactions with slag or refractories, or the reduction of water from air, refractories, or the mold. 20% manganese oxide, and 10% iron oxide.(1) Silica


    melt and higher level of overall chromium reduction from slag can be reached with the blowing of CaC 2. Key words: electric arc furnace (EAF), stainless steel, chromium oxide, slag reduction, calcium carbide INTRODUCTION Stainless have relatively high chromium contents, but very low carbon contents, typically around 0,03 wt% C.


    To reduce chromium and iron in stainless steel slag, the direct smelting reduction of chromium and iron oxide in molten slag was investigated by small furnace experiments. Graphite was used as

  • EAF Stainless Steel Dust Processing - Mintek

    process is based on the reduction of selected metal oxides at high temperatures by means of a carbonaceous reducing agent, with the production of an innocuous slag. The main objectives of the Enviroplas process are to produce disposable slag and in the case where dust from a stainless-steel operation (e.g. AOD dust) is smelted, another objective is


    For the carbon steel slag, originating from an EAF, three particle sizes were studied (0-5 mm, 20-40 mm, 40-185 mm). The ferrochrome slag was crushed and sieved to a 4-9 mm fraction. The stainless steel slag is a finegrained fraction (< 500 µm) obtained after a crushing, screening and demetallisation treatment. For the characterization

  • Production of Stainless Steels: Part Three :: Total

    Stainless steel contains a large amount of chromium as a basic component. Since chromium is a strong oxide-forming element, during normal refining it is difficult to decarburize stainless steel to a sufficiently low carbon level while preventing loss of chromium through oxidation to the slag phase.

  • Slags in ferroalloys productionreview of present knowledge

    range depending on the manganese ore and its gangue minerals. Characteristic for FeMn process is that the slag is rich in manganese oxide up to above 30%. A common feature is that the ore oxides, CrO x and MnO x in slag are not only divalent oxides but also containing some higher valent of Cr3+ and Mn3+, respectively. In FeMn production

  • (PDF) Reduction kinetics of manganese oxide in basic

    In order to improve manganese yield during the reduction of manganese ore, the reduction kinetics of manganese oxide in BOF type slag has been investigated on an experimental scale.

  • Wettability of Solid Metals by Molten MnO-SiO 2 Slag

    Sep 16, 2008· An article presents results of a study of wetting of iron, nickel, and platinum substrates by molten MnO-SiO2 slag of near-eutectic composition by the sessile-drop method in reducing atmosphere (oxygen partial pressure of 1020 to 1018 atm). Significant MnO reduction and manganese dissolution into substrate was observed in reactions with all three substrates.


    slag reduction during the process of steel elaboration. Stainless slags with high content of chromium oxide can´t be recycled or used. OXIDATION OF CHROMIUM The oxidation of chromium with oxygen in solution in the melt occurs parallel to the oxidation of other ele-ments, e.g., carbon, aluminium, silicon and manganese


    nickel, manganese, and other elements turn iron into various alloys of steel. There are hundreds of grades of steel ranging from basic carbon steel to high grade stainless. Steel making begins by reducing any metal oxides in the melt to pure iron metal, while scav-enging ions such as aluminum, silicon, and phosphorous.

  • Optimization of the AO stainless steel processing cost by

    201 Austenitic chromium-nickel-manganese stainless steel, non-hardenable by heat treatment but cold work be done, non- A major loss of valuable chromium to the slag in the form of oxides is not acceptable.[6] A reduction process will be activated after the amount of carbon reach the goal by adding a


    Ostrovski and Webb [4] investigated the reduction of high siliceous manganese ore by graphite at 900-1400 ºC. The reduction of manganese oxide was predominantly observed at the metal/slag interface by carbon in the metal phase. It has been shown in a study of wettability of graphite by slag containing iron oxide [11,12], that the carbon-iron

  • Optimization of Residual Manganese in Molten Metal in

    It was found that residual manganese increased from 0.25 to 0.35 % wt, due to the reduction of both MnO in slag from 22% to 15% and FeO from 21 to18%, also the increase of tapping temperature from 1650 oC to 1670 oC caused an increase the residual manganese from 0.27% to 0.35%, and the slag basicity decrease from 4.25 to 3.8 led to an increase

  • Reduction of Manganese Ores by Methane-Containing Gas

    3.1 Reduction of Pure Manganese Oxides In the first stage, reduction of pure manganese oxide MnO2 by H2-Ar gas (20 vol% H2 and 80 vol% Ar) and CH4-H2-Ar gas mixtures (10 vol% CH4, 20 vol% H2 and Ar the balance) was studied. Reduction of MnO2 by H2-Ar gas started at 305 - 320 oC. Pure MnO 2 was completely reduced to MnO at 610 - 620 oC. In the non-


    In this work, oxide formation during various stages of water atomization and annealing were studied for iron, carbon and manganese alloy system and iron, carbon, chromium, molybdenum and manganese alloy system. Manganese content was varied (0.0%, 0.5%, 1.0%) in the above

  • Slags in ferroalloys productionreview of present knowledge

    slag is rich in manganese oxide up to above 30%. A common feature is that the ore oxides, CrOx and MnOx in slag are not only divalent oxides but also contain some higher valent of Cr3+ and Mn3+, respec-tively. In FeMn production conditions the slag consists mainly of Mn2+. This is a clear difference from CrOx containing slags in which

  • WO2017100808A1 - Manganese waste slag treatment - Google

    A method of processing a ferroalloy waste slag in a reactor which includes the steps of treating the slag with a metallic reductant and a conditioning flux to release a metal oxide and reduce it to metallic form, to use as a commercially acceptable silicon-containing alloy and to form a waste slag which is detoxified by means of granulation and separating the detoxified slag from silicon

  • Criteria determining the selection of slags for the melt

    Mar 01, 1997· The electroslag process as a whole is greatly affected by the chemical and physical properties of the slag used. When used as a melt decontamination scheme, the ESR process may be optimized by selection of the slag. In this research, stainless steel bars were coated with non-radioactive surrogate elements in order to simulate surface contamination.


    Process parameters like slag additions, melt chemistry, power input per ton, melt temperature after downmelt vary considerably. Scrap charges for a specific grade of stainless steel may vary considerably in the start concentration of chromium, nickel, manganese and silicon. Practical experience have shown that some differences

  • Stainless Steel Manufacturing Processes IspatGuru

    May 04, 2014· Stainless Steel Manufacturing Processes. Stainless steels contain from 10 % to 30 % chromium. These steels also contain varying amounts of nickel, molybdenum, copper, sulphur, titanium, and niobium etc. The majority of production of stainless steel was through the electric arc furnace (EAF) till around 1970. With the use of tonnage oxygen in

  • ABSTRACT - University of Miskolc

    compounds of stainless steel slags, calculated with thermodynamic data from HSC 8. It can be seen that from a thermodynamic point of view the reduction of chromium oxide is possible with manganese, silicon, aluminum and carbon at a temperature of more than 1200 °C.

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